Studies in humans
An extract from Agaricus blazei Murill Kyowa (ABMK), has been reported to possess anti-mutagenic and anti-tumour effects. A study has investigated the effects of ABMK consumption on immunological status and qualities of life in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. One hundred cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer patients were treated either with carboplatin (300mg/m(2)) plus VP16 (etoposide, 100mg/m(2)) or with carboplatin (300mg/m(2)) plus taxol (175mg/m(2)) every 3 weeks for at least three cycles, with or without oral consumption of ABMK. The authors observed that natural killer cell activity was significantly higher in the ABMK-treated group compared to the non-treated placebo group (n = 61). However, no significant difference in lymphokine-activated killer and monocyte activities was observed in a manner similar to the count of specific immune cell populations between ABMK-treated and non-treated groups. Chemotherapy-associated side effects such as appetite, alopecia, emotional stability, and general weakness were all reported to be improved by ABMK treatment (Ahn et al., 2004).
In vitro studies (human cell lines)
Ethanol and hot water extracts of Pleurotus ferulae have been shown to have anti-tumourigenic properties in human cervical cancer cell lines and in human lung cancer cell lines. When A549, SiHa and HeLa cells were incubated with different concentrations of ethanol and hot water extracts, the ethanol extracts showed strong cytotoxicity against A549 cells at concentrations over 10µg/mL and against SiHa and HeLa cells at over 40µg/mL (Choi et al., 2004a).
An anti-proliferative effect of clitocine from the mushroom Leucopaxillus giganteus on human cervical cancer HeLa cells has also ben reported. The anti-proliferative effect was via an induction of apoptosis (Ren et al., 2008a).
Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) polysaccharides have also been shown to have an inhibitory effect on cervical cancer cells (CA Ski and HeLa cells) (Chen et al., 2010).
Animal model (mouse) studies
Protein extracts of Lentinus edodes C91-3 fermentation broth administered to mice with cervical cancer prolonged the lifespan of tumour-bearing mice significantly and killed cervical cancer U14 cells in vitro (Liu et al., 2009).