In vitro studies (human cell lines)
Three triterpene aldehydes, lucialdehydes A - C, from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, have been shown to have cytotoxicity against murine and human tumour cells (Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), T-47D, Sarcoma 180, and Meth-A tumour cell lines) (Gao et al., 2002), while Phellinus linteus has been shown to mediate cell-cycle arrest at a low concentration and apoptosis in response to a high dose in mouse and human lung cancer cells (Guo et al., 2007). Blazein, a steroid isolated from Agaricus blazei Murrill (Himematsutake) has been reported to induce cell death and morphological change indicative of apoptotic chromatin condensation in human lung cancer LU99 and stomach cancer KATO III cells (Itoh et al., 2008).
Phellifuropyranone A together with meshimakobnol A and meshimakobnol B from fruiting bodies of Phellinus linteus showed anti-proliferative activity against mouse melanoma cells and human lung cancer cells in vitro (Kojima et al., 2008) while cytotoxic effects of an extract from Pleurotus ferulae have been reported on human lung cancer and cervical cancer cell lines (A549, SiHa and HeLa cells) (Choi et al., 2004a).
Animal model (mouse) studies
Anti-tumour activity of an aqueous extract of Hypsizigus marmoreus has been investigated in an in vivo bioassay. The aqueous extract was tested against syngeneic tumour, Lewis lung carcinoma. The extract was found to provide a significant increase in life span when assayed using a solid tumour, Lewis lung carcinoma, by intraperitoneal administration, but not as much by oral administration. It was found that the extract had an inhibitory activity against spontaneous tumour metastasis in mice bearing the carcinoma by intraperitoneal administration and significantly decreased the number of metastasized nodules (Saitoh et al., 1997).
Sparassis crispa (SC) is an edible mushroom that contains more than 40% beta-D-glucan. Beta-Dglucan from SC (SBG) suppressed B16-F10 cell-induced angiogenesis in the dorsal air sac assay and suppressed the growth and numbers of the metastatic tumor foci in lung, along with the primary tumour growth in the spontaneous metastatic model using female C57BL/6J mice. The effects were not a result of direct action on the endothelial cells as cell growth, migration and capillary-like tube formation were not affected in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells by SBG application (Yamamoto et al., 2009).